2019-09-04 15:08:00来源:网络


  It is frequently assumed that the mechanization of work has a revolutionary effect on the lives of the people who operate the new machines and on the society into which the machines have been introduced. For example, it has been suggested thatthe employment of women in industry took them outof the household, their traditional sphere, andfundamentally altered their position in society. In the nineteenth century, when women beganto enter factories, Jules Simon, a French politician, warned that by doing so, women would giveup their femininity. Friedrich Engels, however, predicted that women would be liberated fromthe “social, legal, and economic subordination” of the family by technological developmentsthat made possible the recruitment of “the whole female sex into public industry.” Observersthus differed concerning the social desirability of mechanization’s effects, but they agreedthat it would transform women’s lives.

  Historians, particularly those investigating the history of women, now seriously question thisassumption of transforming power. They conclude that. such dramatic technologicalinnovations as the spinning jenny, the sewing machine, the typewriter; and the vacuumcleaner have not resulted in equally dramatic social changes in women’s economic position orin the prevailing evaluation of women’s work. The employment of young women in textilemills during the Industrial revolution was largely an extension of an older pattern ofemployment of young, single women as domestics. It was not the change in office technology,but rather the separation of secretarial work, previously seen as an apprenticeship forbeginning managers, from administrative work that in the 1880’s created a new class of “dead-end” jobs, thenceforth considered “women’s work.” The increase :in the numbers of marriedwomen employed. outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with themechanization of housework and an increase :in leisure time for these women than it did withtheir own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool ofsingle women workers, previously, in many cases, the only women employers would hire.

  Women’s work has changed considerably in the past 200 years, moving from the household tothe office or the factory, and later becoming mostly white-collar instead of blue-collar work.Fundamentally, however, the conditions under which women work have changed little sincebefore the Industrial Revolution: the segregation of occupations by gender, lower pay forwomen as a group, jobs that require relatively low levels of skill and offer women littleopportunity for advancement all persist,-while women’s household labor remains demanding.Recent historical investigation has led to a major revision of the notion that technology isalways inherently revolutionary in its effects on society. Mechanization may even have slowedany change in the traditional position of women both in the labor market and in the home.

  Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the Passage?

  AThe effects of the mechanization of women's work have not borne out the frequently heldassumption that new technology is inherently revolutionary.

  BRecent studies have shown that mechanization revolutionizes a society's traditional valuesand the customary roles of its members.

  CMechanization has caused the nature of women's work to change since the IndustrialRevolution.

  DThe mechanization of work creates whole new classes of jobs that did not Previously exist.

  EThe mechanization of women's work, while extremely revolutionary it its effects, has not,on the whole, had the deleterious effects that some critics had feared.

  The author mentions all of the following inventions as examples of dramatictechnological innovations

  Asewing machine

  Bvacuum cleaner


  The passage states that, before the twentieth century, which of the following was trueof many employers?

  AThey did not employ women in factories.

  BThey tended to employ single rather than married women.

  CThey employed women in only those jobs that were related to women's traditional house-hold work.

  DThey resisted technological innovations that would radically change women's roles in thefamily.

  EThey hired women only when qualified men were not available to fill the open positions.

  Which of the following best describes the function of the concluding sentence of thepassage?

  AIt sums up the general points concerning the mechanization of made in the passage as awhole.

  BIt draws a conclusion concerning the effects of the mechanization of work which goesbeyond the evidence presented in the passage as a whole.

  CIt restates the point concerning technology made in the sentence immediately preceding it.

  DIt qualifies the author's agreement with scholars who argue for a major revision in theassessment of the impact of mechanization on society.

  EIt suggests a compromise between two seemingly contradictory views concerning theeffects of mechanization on society.


  A AB B B




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