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GRE阅读中的逻辑假设题

2018-11-03 16:20:49来源:网络

  对于GRE阅读考试中的题型,大家一方面要掌握题型的特点,一方面要掌握解题的技巧,这样能够辅助我们更好地来解答相关的题型内容。今天我们就重点来讲解逻辑假设题的解题技巧。

  今天来说逻辑单题里的假设题。假设题的关键词通常有:assume/ assumption/ depends on/ additional premise/properly drawn?

  什么是假设?假设就是文章结论成立所必要的前提。正确选项往往有以下三个特点:necessary/ unstated/ premise。

  那什么是必要呢?必要就是,没有某物就不行。没有GRE就不能申请美国学校,没有水就不能活,没有选项就没有结论。而与必要相对应的概念,充分,则是指有某物就够了。

  假设题的做题思路通常是:将选项内容取反,带入文章,看能否削弱文章结论。

  Upon maturity, monarch butterflies travel hundreds of miles from theirplaces of origin and lay their eggs on milkweed. The caterpillars that emergefeed on milkweed and absorb the glycosides in milkweed sap. The specificglycosides present in milkweed differ from region to region within the monarchbutterfly’s range. Mature butterflies retain the glycosides in a mature monarchbutterfly could be used to determine its place of origin.

  Which one of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

  A. Mature monarch butterflies do not feed on parts of milkweed that containglycosides.

  B. The glycosides in milkweed sap are slightly toxic to caterpillars ofother species.

  C. The vast majority of the monarch butterflies that are laying eggs in agiven region will have traveled there from a single region.

  D. There are substances other than glycosides in milkweed sap thataccumulate in a monarch caterpillar and are retained in the body of the maturebutterfly.

  E. There are certain glycosides that are found in the sap of all milkweeds,no matter where they grow within the monarch butterfly’s range.

  成熟的蝴蝶飞离出生地。蝴蝶幼虫吃带有g的东西,g在各个地方都不一样,可以用g来判断蝴蝶的出生地。这篇文章的结论是:Mature butterflies retain the glycosides in amature monarch butterfly could be used to determine its place of origin.

  对结论取反(削弱结论)就是,含有g成分的成熟蝴蝶不能被用来判断出生地。

  对选项取反:A、成熟的蝴蝶吃含有g的东西。(成熟的蝴蝶在飞离出生地后吃有g的东西,幼虫在出生地也吃有g的东西,那g就不能被用来判断出生地。A正确);B、C、D、E四个选项取反之后不能用来削弱原来的结论。

  选项特征——unstated

  Virginia and her brother William disagree over when their father was born:Virginia claims it was in 1935 and William claims it was in 1933. The hospitalwhere their father was born has no records for 1933 but has complete recordsfor 1935—records that do not include a birth record for their father.Therefore, he must have been born in 1933.

  The argument depends on which of the following assumptions?

  (A) Either Virginia's claim or William's claim is correct.

  (B) The records of the hospital where their father was born date back to1933.

  (C) Virginia and William know the day and the month of their father'sbirth.

  (D) There are urgent practical reasons why Virginia and William must knowthe date of their father's birth.

  (E) None of their other relatives knows the year in which Virginia andWilliam's father was born.

  V和W在他们父亲的出生时间上有分歧,V认为是1935,W认为是1933。他们父亲出生的医院没有1933的记录,但有1935的完整记录,但是这个出生记录没有他们父亲的。所以,他是1933生的。

  对A选项取反,either or 的取反是Either Virginia's claim or William's claim is (not)correct. 他们两个里面有一个是错的,这就对结论起到了削弱作用。B取反,医院记录不能回溯到1933,那这个就和文章已知信息重复了。答案选A。

  选项特征——necessary

  A thorough search of Edgar Allan Poe's correspondence has turned up not asingle letter in which he mentions his reputed morphine addiction. On the basisof this evidence it is safe to say that Poe's reputation for having been amorphine addict is undeserved and that reports of his supposed addiction areuntrue.

  Which of the following is assumed by the argument above?

  (A) Reports claiming that Poe was addicted to morphine did not begin tocirculate until after his death.

  (B) None of the reports of Poe's supposed morphine addiction can be tracedto individuals who actually knew Poe.

  (C) Poe's income from writing would not have been sufficient to support amorphine addiction.

  (D) Poe would have been unable to carry on an extensive correspondencewhile under the influence of morphine.

  (E) Fear of the consequences would not have prevented Poe from indicatingin his correspondence that he was addicted to morphine.

  EAP的书信没有一封提到吗啡上瘾,基于此可以得出,关于他有吗啡瘾的传言都是假的。要削弱这个结论,应该是要让他有吗啡瘾的说法更像真的。

  A选项取反,在他去世后,关于他上瘾的传言才开始。没有办法削弱结论。B选项取反,关于他上瘾的传言是认识他的人说的,不等于他就上瘾了。C选项取反,他的工资付得起吗啡,那他也不一定要去买吗啡。D选项取反,在吗啡的作用下他还可以写信。E选项取反,由于害怕,他不会在书信里提到他有吗啡瘾。E是正确答案。

  以上就是关于“GRE阅读中的逻辑假设题”的内容,更多精彩内容,请关注GRE频道!


本文关键字: GRE阅读 GRE

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