Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three- dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.
Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?
A.The shape of the connections between the separate, sack like masses in pillow lava is unknown.
B.More accurate cross sections of pillow lava would reveal the mode of origin.
C.Water or ice is necessary for the formation of pillow lava.
D.No three-dimensional examples of intact pillows currently exist.
E.The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.
In the passage, the author is primarily interested in
A.analyzing the source of a scientific controversy
B.criticizing some geologists' methodology
C.pointing out the flaws in a geological study
D.proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence
E.describing a physical phenomenon
The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologist mentioned in line 9 ( "Some geologists" ) have made which of the following errors in reasoning?
I. Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.
II. Deliberately ignored existing counterevidence.
III. Repeatedly failed to take new evidence into account.
D.I and II only
E.II and III only
The author implies that the "controversy" (line 14) might be resolved if
A.geologists did not persist in using the term "pillow"
B.geologists did not rely on potentially misleading information
C.geologists were more willing to confer directly with one another
D.two-dimensional cross sections of eroded pillows were available
E.existing pillows in land outcroppings were not so badly eroded
正确答案:C A A B
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