In the field of science, according to empiricism and positivism, “science” theories are objective, empirically testable and “predictive”- they predict results that can be checked objectively.
To say ―the apple fell‖ is to state a fact, whereas Newton’s theory of universal gravitation is a body of ideas that is based on the observation and allows other scientists to explain why the apple fell and make prediction about other falling objects.
Overflowing Landfill with outdated devices, discarded chemicals, and plastic packaging, landfills are a testament to the sobering side effects of technological advance. An average city dweller may produce a ton of refuse in a year, a volume that rapidly overflows local dumps. Cities running out of space for landfill often turn to incinerating their waste or transporting it to other areas, although up to 90 percent of the material might have been recycled.
Automation Trade-Off Technological advancement has both positive and ill effects on a society. Take, for example, advances in automation technology. Automation has improved production efficiency and quality control, and has reduced the need to have workers perform potentially dangerous tasks. On the other hand, automation has made many jobs unnecessary, putting employees out of work, or forcing them to retrain.
Reassessments of Technology 军事上
World War I and the Great Depression forced a sobering reassessment of this rapid technological explosion. The development of submarines, machine guns, battleships, and chemical warfare made increasingly clear the destructive side of technological change. In addition, worldwide mass unemployment and the disasters met by capitalistic institutions in the 1930s initiated a further strong critique of the benefits that result from technological progress.
Then, with World War II, came the development of the weapon that has since become a general threat to life on earth: the atomic bomb. Although national leaders often speak of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, nuclear power can never be discussed without referring to its dangers as well. Another technological outgrowth of World War II—the development of computers and transistors and the accompanying trend toward miniaturization—is having equally profound effects on society as well (see Microprocessor). The possibilities it offers are enormous, but so are the possibilities for invasion of privacy and for workforce displacement by automated systems (see Automation).
During the 1950s some observers began to warn that many other products of technology also had harmful or destructive aspects. Automobile exhausts, they pointed out, were polluting the atmosphere, pesticides such as DDT were threatening the food chain, and mineral wastes from a wide variety of industrial sources were polluting large reservoirs of groundwater. Indeed, the physical environment has become so jammed with technological processes that one of the major challenges of modern society is the search for places to dump the wastes that have been produced.
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