According to what Freud has said art, in essence, is a kind of release (discharge) of individual lust, converting the human libido into plentiful creativity. It is through the work of art that artists express their passions, emotions, and desires. From this we can see, art is therefore, first and foremost, concerning with the inner world rather than with the outside one as a whole.
Pleasure; beauty(music, painting,-color, form, sound, melody)(娱乐)
present us with insight into what is eternal and universal. Behind the profound work of art is a set of principles of humanity that always prevail.(理解人性)
Renaissance painting of a Madonna and Angels, for many viewers, is somehow
a revelation of transcendent spirituality;
a Beethoven symphony is the last word on human endurance.
Some narrative arts (novel, film) instruct us to some extent. This works with moral reflect the human character.(反映人性)
Shakespeare's Macbeth, for instance, teaches us that inordinate ambition is pernicious.
This function of the arts can be denoted as "expressionism" -- the artist's use of a medium to express unique passion and insight.(作为表达方式)
The pianist Franz Liszt, for instance, in the 1830s and 40s created a public personality as the great piano virtuoso of the era
19th century, art at the service of leaders—the Church, the government, and the aristocracy.(艺术为政府服务)
The expression of private feelings and the criticism of society
Beethoven, one of the greatest composers and musicians, created many symphonies. Astonishingly, he produced his most famous symphony, Chorus, with complete deafness. How could he manage it? It must be the prominent imagination that stimulated him to struggle and thrive, thus he can even listen in spite of no hearings.
作品--The Fifth Symphony, the Finale of the Ninth Symphony and the "Moonlight" Sonata
A Beethoven symphony is the last word on human endurance.
Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. He has been described as the archetype of the "Renaissance man" and as a universal genius. Leonardo is famous for his masterly paintings, such as The Last Supper and Mona Lisa. He is also known for designing many inventions that anticipated modern allowed him some degree of freedom in his work.
Van Gogh, two of whose still life paintings have recently broken all records in selling for $50 million, sold only one of his paintings in his entire career.
Emily Bronte was a British novelist and poet, best remembered for her one novel Wuthering Heights, an acknowledged classic of English literature. But it received mixed reviews when it first came out, the book did not become an English literary classic until forty years later.
Emily Dickinson has since come to be regarded as one of the two great American poets of the 19th century. Though almost unknown and nearly unpublished in her own lifetime, Dickinson
Monet's famous work "Impression: Sunrise" was not understood initially, since it seems peculiar for a large amount of blue was used as the major color for sunlight. However, this work eventually earned its reputation and had led to the name for impressionism
作品反映社会(Van Gogh, Picasso)
Van Gogh--“potato eaters”: Dark and somber, sometimes crude, these early works evidence van Gogh's intense desire to express the misery and poverty of humanity as he saw it among the miners in Belgium.
Picasso—“Pigeon”, he was a pacifist,
Take the enormity of Pablo Picasso’s artistic output for an illustration, which connotes an unrealistic interpretation of its original creature, exists as unrivalled tributes to an artist whose influence remain unequalled in quality and longevity. It is simply because of the innovative approach towards objects he applied to his work-- full of variety in its kind for individual to predict in their fragment--which people desperately needed
1938:Painting And Sculpture--Art in the United States：In 1938 the United States Government continued to act as chief patron of the arts in America. The art projects of the Works Progress Administration and of the Treasury Department continued their programs, employing several thousand artists and bringing art before an increasingly large public all over the country.
However, if the government extraordinarily funds arts, it would harm the integrity of them. The typical instance is U.S.S.R.(=Soviet Union) In the 1950s to the 1990s, the U.S.S.R. Soviet Union government always funded the arts. In order to get the funding from the government, many artists in U.S.S.R. chose to create some arty works, which the government preferred to. After several decades' development, the integrity of the arts in U.S.S.R. has been heavily threatened. Many kinds of arts have disappeared and many people thought that due to the funding of government, the integrity of arts had been harmed.
1951: Art ：In the Western countries sentiment was rising for systematic and sustained government patronage of art, as private patronage collapsed under inflationary pressures
Culture--by which I chiefly mean the fine arts--has always depended primarily on the patronage of private individuals and businesses, and not on the government. The Medici, a powerful banking family of Renaissance Italy, supported artists Michelangelo and Raphael. During the 20th Century the primary source of cultural support were private funds established by industrial magnates Carnegie, Mellon, Rockefeller and Getty.