24. "People in positions of power are most effective when they exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power."
1. People without caution and restraint tend to abuse the power granted to them.
2. Caution and restraint help people have better understanding and make better use of the power.
3. Leaders should not be tied up by too much caution and restraint.
43. "To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards."
1. In the business realm, successful leadership is generally defined as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners.
2. In the political realm the issue is no less complex. Definition of successful political leadership and of ethical or moral leadership are tied up in the means a leader uses to wield his or her power and to obtain that power in the first place.
3. Personal morality is unrelated to effective political leadership. However, public morality and successful leadership are more closely connected.
44. "Government should not fund any scientific research whose consequences, either medical or ethical, are unclear."
1. Financial support is to the uncertain scientific research what steam is to locomotive.
2. The consequences of uncertain researches may turn out to be as substantial as those with clear perspectives.
3. Admittedly, there are some dangers or wastes when the result of a scientific research is unclear.
45. "Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carrying out the will of the people whom they serve."
1. Admittedly, it is hard to get a good rapport of all the people.
2. However, in a democratic society, government is elected by the people, and therefore should take the responsibility to serve for the people and realize their will.
3. Without the support of the people, government is bound to perish.
56. "Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future."
Whether solving the immediate problems of today is more important than solving the anticipated problems of the future depends on the nature of the problems to be solved.
1. To win the favor of the general public, governments throughout the world tend to focus on solving the immediate problems of today.
2. However, a government’s failing to prepare for future challenges will cause disasters to its country in the long run.
3. Furthermore, a government should always take into consideration the possible future effects of the actions it takes today.
79. "Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts, who are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public."
The title statement goes against the basic tenets of modern democracy.
1. In some cases, politicians and other government experts might be more informed and have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public.
2. However, there is no guarantee that the politicians and experts would always put the interest of the public before their own selfish interests.
3. Furthermore, empirical evidence also indicates that politicians and government experts do make grave mistakes that harm the interests of the public.
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