204. "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all."
1. Even though experience is a most lively and vivid way that we learn things, it is by no means the only way.
2. Admittedly, by putting a theory into practice, we can either improve it or prove its truth.
3. However, there is no need for us to experience every theory before accepting and benefiting from it.
217. "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn what contributions remain to be made."
Naturally, to make new contributions in any field of study, scholars and scientists should first master the existing work done by their fellow scholars and scientists.
1. No one can produce any original work without first assimilating the contributions of former generations in his or her field.
2. The defects of the work of other scholars and scientists are where we can possibly make our contributions.
3. In a large sense, what is called “original” work is usually but an improvement on the work done by previous scholars and scientist.
229. "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop a sense of the whole."
To learn a new subject, one should start by developing a sense of the whole rather than focusing on segments or details.
1. A sense of the whole subject enables us to identify the specific areas where we can make original contributions.
2. A sense of the whole subject provides necessary background knowledge for any in-depth exploration into particular areas of that subject.
3. Studying small segments or details in great depth would in turn contribute to our understanding of the whole subject.
8. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public."
1. In order to gain the opportunity for effective public leadership, a would-be leader must first gain and maintain political power. In the game of politics, complete forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and naiveté, neither of which earn a politician respect among his or her opponents.
2. Fully disclosing to the public certain types of information would threaten public safety and perhaps even national security.
3. Nevertheless, legitimate political leadership indeed requires forthrightness with the citizenry as to the leader’s motives and agenda.
少数和多数的关系之true lies, the truth is out there.