210. "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."
Although practical considerations often play a significant role in occupational trends, ultimately the driving forces behind people’s career decisions are individual interest and ability.
1. At first glance the balance of empirical evidence would seem to lend considerable credence to the speaker’s claim
2. However, upon further reflection it becomes clear that the relationship between career seekers and the supply of careers is an interdependent one, and therefore it is unfair to generalize about which one drives the other.
3. Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has to do with the myriad of ways in which people earn their living.
211. "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."
We should take into account both future and present conditions when we make a decision.
1. Any decision that does not take into account future conditions will become obsolete as time goes by.
2. We should know that fact that nobody can foretell exactly what will happen in the future.
3. Meanwhile, if we ignore the present conditions, our decision will not work at all.
212. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."
Although the idealist way is to achieve the noblest goal through the noblest means, in reality we sometimes have to resort to low means in order to attain high goals.
1. Theoretically, the means taken should be consistent with the ends in view.
2. However, in order to restore peace and social order, individuals states or the international community has repeatedly used force in history.
3. We should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or government tend to plead a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and private interests.
216. "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."
1. Turning first to discoveries, I agree that discovery often occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated question or a solution to an unrelated problem.
2. Many important discoveries are anticipated and sought out purposefully.
3. In marked contrast to discoveries, creations are by nature products of their creator’s purposeful designs.
225. "People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."
1. I agree with the speaker insofar as insisting on find similarities between things can often result in unfair, and sometimes harmful, comparison.
2. We should be especially careful when looking for similarities between people.
3. The speaker goes too far—by overlooking a fundamental, even philosophical, reason why we should always look for similarities between things.