70. "In any profession--business, politics, education, government--those in power should step down after five years. The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership."
Limiting the term of leadership is an effective way to prevent corruption and lack of initiatives.
1. When leaders have no fear of losing their power, they tend to abuse their power.
2. A new leadership usually has greater initiative and would bring in new ideas.
3. However, in certain realms such as business it might not be so necessary to limit the term of leadership.
4. Furthermore, new leaders often lack the necessary skill and experience to cope with existing problems; therefore, they need a period of time for adaptation.
72. "One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities."
It is no longer true the major cities are characteristic of a society.
1. Major cities used to be the cultural centers of a society.
2. Nowadays, however, due to the influence of globalization, major cities throughout the world look more or less the same.
3. By contrast, the rural areas of a society maintain more of its cultural tradition.
76. "Truly profound thinkers and highly creative artists are always out of step with their time and their society."
To be more exact, great thinkers and artists are generally out of step with their time and society.
1. Many great artists remained obscure all their lives.
2. There are countless examples of original thinkers who were either ignored or misunderstood by their time and their society.
3. However, there are cases of greater thinkers or artists who were recognized and rocketed to instant fame in their own time and their own society.
77. "People today are too individualistic. Instead of pursuing self-centered, separate goals, people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole."
Extreme individualism has become a serious threat to the social fabric and the welfare of all members of society.
1. Some people may claim that the greater good of the family, the community or society lies in the good of the individual, which justifies the pursuit of self-interests.
2. The problem daunting contemporary society is that egoism as run wild.
3. Today there is every need for the society to encourage individuals to work for the interests of others.
89. "Leaders are created primarily by the demands that are placed upon them."
Generally speaking, leaders are the results of a combination of internal qualities and external conditions.
1. The demands place upon a person could challenge him or her to become a leader.
2. However, the statement seems to suggest that anybody can become a leader if demands are placed on him or her, which is unwarranted.
3. Besides opportunities, one also need to have certain qualities to make a leader.
93. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making."
1. The claim that individual responsibility is a necessary fictions has some merit in that a society where individuals are not held accountable for their actions and choices is a lawless one, devoid of any order whatsoever.
2. A correlative argument for individual responsibility involves the fact that lawless, or anarchist, states give way to despotic rule by strong individuals who seize power.
3. As for the speaker’s second claim, it flies in the face of our everyday experiences in making choices and decisions.
113. "It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves."
I strongly agree that we define ourselves primarily through our identification with social groups, as the speaker asserts.
1. Any developmental psychologist would agree that socialization with other children plays a critical role in any child’s understanding and psychological development of self.
2. As children progress to the social world of the playground and other after-school venues, their earlier recognition that they relate more closely to some people than to others evolves into a desire to form well-defined social groups, and to set these groups apart from others.
3. However, as young adults take on the responsibilities of partnering, parenting, and working, they appear to define themselves less by their social affiliations and more by their marital status, parental status, and occupation.
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