2. "Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society." 归根结底，竞争对于社会是利多弊少。
Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society.
1. Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society.
2. In democratic countries, when parties and candidates compete for power, the public benefits.
3. Admittedly, when competition gets out of the control of mores and laws, society will suffer.
3. "It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations."与其花钱进行可能有助于后代的长期性研究，还不如把钱花在迫在眉睫，已经存在的社会问题上。
Humanity should take into account both long-term interests and short-term interests when making budgets.
1. Naturally, each generation is most concerned about solving problems that immediately confront them.
2. However, what differentiates human beings from other animals is that humans have a sense of future and are morally responsible for the well-being of their descendents.
3. Therefore, as beneficiaries of previous generations, each generation should make its own contribution for the well-being of future generations.
9. "Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience, their ideas will have little use."
The speaker oversimplifies the issue of academic influence on society.
1. It is true that academic disciplines have become so specialized nowadays that some scholar’s seemingly idiosyncratic ideas only reach a narrow audience.
2. It is also true that social scientists’ failing to reach the large public makes it impossible for their ideas to contribute to society.
3. Nevertheless, scholars in certain realms are doomed to live in an isolated and purely academic world, which does not necessarily mean that their ideas will have little use.
15. "The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior."
It is true that how a society copes with the extremes of human behavior largely determines the society’s stability.
1. The extremes of human behavior--such as violence or strikes--usually dictate grave social troubles.
2. One solution to these social problems is suppressing, which proves effective in the short run and counterproductive in the long run.
3. The most effective way of responding to such problems is constructive communication and sometimes compromise.
16. "Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."
1. Consider first the effect of the automobile on our independence as individuals. In some respects the automobile serves to enhance such independence.
2. However, we have become slaves to the automobile.
3. Consider next the overall impact of the automobile on our strength as individuals, by which I mean strength of character, or mettle.
4. In contrast, there is a certain strength of character that comes with eschewing modern conveniences such as cars, and with the knowledge that one is contributing to a cleaner and quieter environment, a safer neighborhood, and arguably a more genteel society.
17. "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."
1. First, whether a law is just or unjust is rarely a straightforward issue. The fairness of any law depends on one’s personal value system.
2. The fairness of a law also depends on one’s personal interest, or stake, in the legal issue at hand.
3. Disobeying unjust laws often has the opposite effect of what was intended or hoped for.
4. By justifying a violation of one sort of law we find ourselves on a slippery slope toward sanctioning all types of illegal behavior, including egregious criminal conduct.
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