Analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians in state and local government jobs is important for several reasons. First, the basic idea underlying the theory of representative bureaucracy is that the demographic composition of bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition of the general public. This is because in addition to its symbolic value, increased access to managerial position may lead to greater responsiveness on the part of policy makers to the policy interests of traditionally disadvantaged groups such as American Indians. Second, the focus on higher level jobs in bureaucracies (as opposed to non-managerial positions) is especially important because managerial positions represent a major source of economic progress for members of traditionally disadvantaged groups, as these jobs confer good salaries, benefits, status, security, and mobility. Third, it is important to know if there has been growth in the American Indian share of more desirable public sector positions over the last two decades. For instance, Peterson and Duncan argue that the population and power of American Indians have been growing in certain states. Peterson and Duncan also suggest that this growth may reflect the possibility that American Indian population are becoming more active in nontraditional areas of politics, assimilating into mainstream culture, and securing with greater frequency leadership positions in non-tribal government.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. Summarize a demographic trend overt time
B. Present findings on a demographic group
C. Analyze the demographic composition of a type of job
D. Explain the need for particular social research
E. Argue for the implementation of a social policy
2. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as whole?
A. It hypothesizes a phenomenon that might explain a point made in the preceding sentence.
B. It provides evidence that undermines that assertion made in the first sentence.
C. It offers a projection regarding the development of a trend mentioned earlier in the passage.
D. It presents an interpretation of a discrepancy noted earlier in the passage.
E. It proposed an implementation of a policy mentioned in the preceding sentence.
3. The passage suggests which of the following regarding “access to managerial positions” for disadvantaged groups?
A. This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positions mirrors the percent of that group in the general public.
B. This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups.
C. This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups.
D. This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups.
E. The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged groups.