Writing of the Iroquois nation, Smith has argued that through. The chiefs’ council, tribal chiefs traditionally maintained complete control over the political affairs of both the Iroquois tribal league and the individual tribes belonging to the league, whereas the sole jurisdiction over religious affairs resided with the shamans. According to Smith, this division was maintained until the late nineteenth century, when the dissolution of the chiefs’ council and the consequent diminishment of the chiefs’ political power fostered their increasing involvement in religious affairs.
However, Smith fails to recognize that this division of power between the tribal chiefs and shamans was not actually rooted in Iroquois tradition; rather, it resulted from the Iroquois’ resettlement on reservations early in the nineteenth century. Prior to resettlement, the chiefs’ council controlled only the broad policy of the tribal league; individual tribes had institutions-most important, the longhouse-to govern their own affairs. In the longhouse, the tribe’s chief influenced both political and religious affairs.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A.question the published conclusions of a scholar concerning the history of the Iroquois nation
B.Establish the relationship between an earlier scholar's work and new Anthropological research
C.summarize scholarly controversy concerning an incident from Iroquois history
D.trace two generations of scholarly opinion concerning Iroquois social institutions
E.differentiate between Iroquois political practices and Iroquois religious practices
It can be inferred that the author of the passage regards Smith's argument as
A.provocative and potentially useful, but flawed by poor organization
B.eloquently presented, but needlessly inflammatory
C.accurate in some of its particulars, but inaccurate with regard to an important point
D.historically sound, but overly detailed and redundant
E.persuasive in its time, but now largely outdated
Within the next decade, sophisticated telescopes now orbiting the Earth will determine whether the continents really are moving, (i) _____ the incipient (ii) _____ among geologists about the validity of the theory of continental drift.
Which of the following best expresses an opinion presented by the author of the passage?
A.Smith has overstated the importance of the political role played by Iroquois tribal chiefs in the nineteenth century.
B.Smith has overlooked the fact that the Iroquois rarely allowed their shamans to exercise political authority.
C.Smith has failed to explain why the chiefs' council was dissolved late in the nineteenth century.
D.Smith has failed to acknowledge the role prior to the nineteenth century of the Iroquois tribal chiefs in religious affairs.
E.Smith has failed to recognize that the very structure of Iroquois social institutions reflects religious beliefs.