-- 关于政治家的道德， 有以下两个小题目：
104: To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards. (Claim)
107: To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards. (Statement)
Introduction: I fundamentally agree that public officials must adhere to high ethical and moral standards which are beneficial to the their leadership as well as the society, although it is not their political duty to pursue the highest uprightness in morality.
1、First of all, public morality and successful leadership are for sure closely connected.
(1)Consider many leaders, such as Hitler, whom most people would agree were egregious violators of public morality -> such leaders forfeit their leadership as a result of the immoral means by which they obtained or wielded their power.
(2)Watergate scandal (a break-in into Democratic National Committee offices before American election and the subsequent attempts in cover-up by Nixon; Nixon administration's abuse of power toward the goal of undermining political opposition). President Nixon, whose contempt for the very legal system that afforded him his leadership led to his forfeiture of it.
2、The leader has a social responsibility to be morally upright in order to set a good example for the society
(1)All the people who deal with him, whether those working under him or the common people , look up to him. He has responsibilities that he has to fulfill. Such an official needs to be exemplary by setting moral standards . This is because a good leader should act as a motivator and the best motivation to adhere to rules and regulations can be provided by a leader if he practices the regulations himself.
(2)Bill Clinton: Although he was involved in the Lewinsky Scandal , he was considered to be an effective leader. But immorality is very infectious and could creep into the system very quickly . Thus people who would not support my stand could have Mr. Clinton as an excuse for being effective without being a man of morals and integrity. If moral values are compromised by leaders or if they are found to be involved in scandals , their image is smeared in the eyes of the people . Their decisions are scrutinized and their motives will be doubted. This would lead to ineffective leadership. He could have been a more effective leader if he would not have been involved in such a scandal. He admitted his mistake and finally he ,too stuck to morality to salvage his lost pride .
3、However, it is unrealistic to demand highest or complete pureness in politicians' morality.
(1)In Machiavellians' political thoughts, it is of most importance for politicians to maintain his power and orderliness of the state instead of pursuit of justice.
A、Politicians are ruling a world which is itself not morally good.
(2)Some prominent figures lie, not for self-serving reasons, but in attempt to secure what they saw as morally important political goals.
A、In those elections, you can't expect whatever the candidate says is true. They are using political tactics or tricks to convince the electorate to vote for them.
(3)As long as ... then it is okay.